Computer System Cooling  Glossary  

The phrase cooling in computing generally refers to the dissipation of large amounts of heat, which is created while a computer system is running.
Heat is generated inside the computer tower by various hardware such as CPU, video card or even the hard drive. The objective of cooling is to
maintain an optimal operating temperature and this can be achieved through various methods including the introduction of heat sinks and fans.
Other cooling methods include liquid cooling and software cooling.  

What is computer system cooling? - A word Defention from the Webopedia

Computer Cooling Terms. The definition of these words will help you get familiar with computer cooling terminology A-Z.

Active Heatsink
Active heat sink cooling. This uses the same principle as a passive heat sink cooler, with the only difference being that a fan is directed to blow over
or through the heat sink. This results in more air being blown through the heat sink, increasing the rate at which the heat sink can exchange heat
with the ambient air. Active heat sinks are the primary method of cooling a modern day processor or graphics card.

The buildup of dust is greatly increased with active heat sink cooling as the fan is continually taking in the dust present in the surrounding air. As a
result, dust removal procedures need to be exercised much more frequently than with passive heat sink methods.

BGA Cooling
This terms is refers to cooling the RAM memory chips on a video card,   


Chipset Cooling - Chipset Cooler
A chipset cooler is the heatsink used to cool down a computer main boards south bridge or and northbridge chipset.


CPU Cooling - CPU Cooler
A term used to cool down the brains of the computer called the CPU or processor.


CPU Heatsink
A heatsink used to cool the brains of the computer called the CPU or processor.


Computer Case
A computer case (also known as the computer chassis, cabinet, tower, box, enclosure, housing or simply case) is the enclosure that contains the
main components of a computer. Cases are usually constructed from steel, Aluminium, or plastic, although other materials such as wood, plexiglas
or fans[1] have also been used in case designs. Often made of SECC steel.

Sizes: Cases can come in many different sizes, or form factors. The size and shape of a computer case is usually determined by the form factor of
motherboard that it is designed to accommodate, since this is the largest and most central component of most computers. Consequently, personal
computer form factors typically specify only the internal dimensions and layout of the case. Form factors for rack-mounted and blade servers may
include precise external dimensions as well, since these cases must themselves fit in specific enclosures.

For example, a case designed for an ATX motherboard and power supply may take on several external forms, such as a vertical tower (designed to
sit on the floor) or a flat desktop or pizza box (designed to sit on the desk under the computer's monitor)). Full-size tower cases are typically larger in
volume than desktop cases, with more room for drive bays and expansion slots. Desktop cases—and mini-tower cases designed for the reduced
microATX form factor—are popular in business environments where space is at a premium.[2]


Computer Cooling
Computer cooling is the process of removing heat from computer components.

A stock AMD heatsink mounted on to a motherboard.A computer system's components produce large amounts of heat during
operation, including, but not limited to, integrated circuits such as CPUs, chipset and graphics cards, along with hard drives. This
heat must be dissipated in order to keep these components within their safe operating temperatures, and both manufacturing
methods and additional parts are used to keep the heat at a safe level. This is done mainly using heat sinks to increase the
surface area which dissipates heat, fans to speed up the exchange of air heated by the computer parts for cooler ambient air, and
in some cases softcooling, the throttling of computer parts in order to decrease heat generation.

Overheated parts generally exhibit a shorter maximum life-span and may give sporadic problems resulting in system freezes or
crashes.


Computer Fan
A computer fan can be any fan inside a computer case used for cooling purposes, and may refer to fans that draw cooler air into the case from the
outside, expel warm air from inside, or move air across a heatsink to cool a particular component. The use of fans and/or other hardware to cool a
computer is sometimes referred to as active cooling.

Arctic Cooling, Nexus, Noctua, ebmpapst, Panaflo, Zalman are brands of fans.


Computer Power Supply
A computer power supply unit (Computer PSU), or Modular Power Supply Unit (MPS) is the component that supplies power to a computer. More
specifically, a power supply is typically designed to convert 100-120 V (North America and Japan) or 220-240 V (Europe, Asia and Australia) AC
power from the mains to usable low-voltage DC power for the internal components of the computer. Some power supplies have a switch to change
between 230V and 115V. Other models have automatic sensors that switch input voltage automatically, or are able to accept any voltage between
those limits.

The most common computer power supplies are built to conform with the ATX form factor. The most recent specification of the ATX standard is
version 2.2, released in 2004. This enables different power supplies to be interchangeable with different components inside the computer. ATX
power supplies also are designed to turn on and off using a signal from the motherboard (PS-ON wire), and provide support for modern functions
such as the standby mode available in many computers.


DIY
DIY is an abbreviation for "Do it your sel.f" Do it yourself, often referred to by the initialism DIY, is a term used by various communities that focus on
people creating things for themselves without the aid of paid professionals. The notion is largely made possible by living in a modern industrial
society, and is related in philosophy to the Arts and Crafts movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Many modern DIY subcultures take the
traditional Arts and Crafts movement's rebellion against the perceived lack of soul of industrial aesthetics a step further. DIY subculture explicitly
critiques modern consumer culture, which emphasizes that the solution to our needs is to purchase things, and instead encourage people to take
technologies into their own hands to solve needs.

The actual activity of DIY goes back through the ages: since the beginning of time, people have used their own abilities and available tools and
technologies to take care of their own needs, make their own clothing, and so on.

The phrase "do it yourself" came into common usage in the 1950s in reference to various jobs that people could do in and around their houses
without the help of professionals. A very active community of people continues to use the term DIY to refer to fabricating or repairing things for home
needs, on one's own rather than purchasing them or paying for professional repair. In other words, home improvement done by the householder
without the aid of paid professionals.

In recent years, the term DIY has taken on a broader meaning that covers a wide range of skillsets. Today, for example, DIY is associated with the
international alternative and hardcore music scenes. Members of these subcultures strive to blur the lines between creator and consumer by
constructing a social network that ties users and makers close together.

There are various communities of media-makers that consider themselves DIY, for example the indymedia network, pirate radio stations, and the
zine community.


GPU
A graphics processing unit or GPU (also occasionally called visual processing unit or VPU) is a dedicated graphics rendering device for a personal
computer, workstation, or game console. Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating and displaying computer graphics, and their highly parallel
structure makes them more effective than general-purpose CPUs for a range of complex algorithms. A GPU can sit on top of a video card, or it can
be integrated directly into the motherboard. In more than 90% of desktop and notebook computers integrated GPUs are usually far less powerful
than their add-in counterparts.


Hard Drive cooling - Hard Drive Cooler
A heatsink or specialized fan used to cool down the computer hard drive where all the data is stored.


HTPC
An abrviation for HomeTheater PC


Heat Pipe
This is the latest adavace technology used to cool down every component of your PC. This technology has been proven to be the most affective with
air cooling with a fan and in some cases with proper ventilation can be used to cool a computer Noise free and trouble free with no moving parts to
fail when cooling. Heat Pipe is the Enthusisat standard for cooling as well as IT Pros, gamers, Overclockers Etc... This technology has been proven
to so effective that it has been compared to water cooling or liquid cooling yet completely safe.

What actually is a heat pipe? A heat pipe is a heat transfer mechanism that can transport large quantities of heat with a very small difference in
temperature between the hotter and colder interfaces.

Inside a heat pipe, at the hot interface a fluid turns to vapour and the gas naturally flows and condenses on the cold interface. The liquid falls or is
moved by capillary action back to the hot interface to evaporate again and repeat the cycle.


Heatsink
Heat sinks are widely used in electronics, and have become almost essential to modern central processing units. In common use, it is a metal
object brought into contact with an electronic component's hot surface — though in most cases, a thin thermal interface material mediates between
the two surfaces. Microprocessors and power handling semiconductors are examples of electronics that need a heat sink to reduce their
temperature through increased thermal mass and heat dissipation (primarily by conduction and convection and to a lesser extent by radiation). Heat
sinks have become almost essential to modern integrated circuits like microprocessors, DSPs, GPUs, and more.

A heat sink usually consists of a metal structure with one or more flat surfaces to ensure good thermal contact with the components to be cooled,
and an array of comb or fin like protrusions to increase the surface contact with the air, and thus the rate of heat dissipation.

A heat sink is sometimes used in conjunction with a fan to increase the rate of airflow over the heat sink. This maintains a larger temperature
gradient by replacing warmed air faster than convection would. This is known as a forced air system.


CPU heat sink with fan attachedA heat sink (or heatsink) is an environment or object that absorbs and dissipates heat from another object using
thermal contact (either direct or radiant). Heat sinks are used in a wide range of applications wherever efficient heat dissipation is required; major
examples include refrigeration, heat engines and cooling electronic devices.


[edit] Principle

  • Radial Heat Sink with Thermal Profile and Swirling Forced Convection Flow Trajectories (using CFD analysis)

  • Liquid Cooled Heat Sink with Forced Convection Flow Trajectories (using CFD analysis)

  • Pin Fin Heat Sink with Thermal Profile and Dione Convection Flow Trajectories (using CFD analysis)

  • Heat sink in a workstation computer

  • A motherboard heat sink

Fire test where the steel pipe penetrants clearly act to absorb and conduct heat from the furnace, through to the unexposed side.Heat sinks function
by efficiently transferring thermal energy ("heat") from an object at high temperature to a second object at a lower temperature with a much greater
heat capacity. This rapid transfer of thermal energy quickly brings the first object into thermal equilibrium with the second, lowering the temperature
of the first object, fulfilling the heat sink's role as a cooling device. Efficient function of a heat sink relies on rapid transfer of thermal energy from the
first object to the heat sink, and the heat sink to the second object.

The most common design of a heat sink is a metal device with many fins. The high thermal conductivity of the metal combined with its large surface
area result in the rapid transfer of thermal energy to the surrounding, cooler, air. This cools the heat sink and whatever it is in direct thermal contact
with. Use of fluids (for example coolants in refrigeration) and thermal interface material (in cooling electronic devices) ensures good transfer of
thermal energy to the heat sink. Similarly, a fan may improve the transfer of thermal energy from the heat sink to the air.


[edit] Construction and materials
A heat sink usually consists of a base with one or more flat surfaces and an array of comb or fin-like protrusions to increase the heat sink's surface
area contacting the air, and thus increasing the heat dissipation rate. While a heat sink is a static object, a fan often aids a heat sink by providing
increased airflow over the heat sink — thus maintaining a larger temperature gradient by replacing the warmed air more quickly than passive
convection achieves alone — this is known as a forced air system.

Heat sinks are made from a good thermal conductor such as copper or aluminum alloy. Copper (401 W/(m·K) at 300 K) is significantly more
expensive than aluminum (237 W/(m·K) at 300 K) but is also roughly twice as efficient as a thermal conductor. Aluminum has the significant
advantage that it can be easily formed by extrusion, thus making complex cross-sections possible. Aluminum is also much lighter than copper,
offering less mechanical stress on delicate electronic components. Some heat sinks made from aluminum have a copper core as a trade off. The
heat sink's contact surface (the base) must be flat and smooth to ensure the best thermal contact with the object needing cooling. Frequently a
thermally conductive grease is used to ensure optimal thermal contact, such compounds often contain colloidal silver. Further, a clamping
mechanism, screws, or thermal adhesive hold the heat sink tightly onto the component, but specifically without pressure that would crush the
component.


[edit] Performance
Heat sink performance (including free convection, forced convection, liquid cooled, and any combination thereof) is a function of material, geometry,
and overall surface heat transfer coefficient. Generally, forced convection heat sink thermal performance is improved by increasing the thermal
conductivity of the heat sink materials, increasing the surface area (usually by adding extended surfaces, such as fins or foam metal) and by
increasing the overall area heat transfer coefficient (usually by increase fluid velocity, such as adding fans, pumps, etc.).

Online heat sink calculators from companies such as Novel Concepts, Inc., can accurately estimate forced convection heat sink performance. For
more complex heat sink geometries, and/or heat sinks with multiple materials, and/or heat sinks with multiple fluids, computation fluid dynamics
(CFD) analysis is recommended (see graphics on this page).


[edit] Use in electronics

[edit] PC marketplace
Due to recent technological developments and public interest, the retail heat sink market has reached an all time high. In the early 2000s, CPUs
were produced that emitted more and more heat than earlier, escalating requirements for quality cooling systems.

Overclocking has always meant greater cooling needs, and the inherently hotter chips meant more concerns for the enthusiast. Efficient heat sinks
are vital to overclocked computer systems because the higher a microprocessor's cooling rate, the faster the computer can operate without
instability; generally, faster operation leads to higher performance. Many companies now compete to offer the best heat sink for PC overclocking
enthusiasts. Prominent aftermarket heat sink manufacturers include: Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc., www.qats.com, Aero Cool, Cooler Master,
Foxconn, Thermalright, Thermaltake, Swiftech, and Zalman.


[edit] In soldering
Temporary heat sinks were sometimes used while soldering circuit boards, preventing excessive heat from damaging sensitive nearby electronics.
In the simplest case, this means partially gripping a component using a heavy metal crocodile clip or similar clamp. Modern semiconductor devices,
which are designed to be assembled by reflow soldering, can usually tolerate soldering temperatures without damage. On the other hand, electrical
components such as magnetic reed switches can malfunction if exposed to higher powered soldering irons, so this practice is still very much in
use. [1]


[edit] Recent developments
More recently, synthetic diamond cooling sinks are being researched to provide better cooling. Also, some heat sinks are constructed of multiple
materials with desirable characteristics, such as phase change materials, which can store a great deal of energy due to their heat of fusion.


[edit] Convective air cooling
This term describes device cooling by the convection currents of the warm air being allowed to escape the confines of the component to be replaced
by cooler air. Since warm air normally rises, this method usually requires venting at the top or sides of the casing to be effective.


[edit] Forced air cooling
If there is more air being forced into a system than being pumped out (due to an imbalance in the number of fans), this is referred to as a 'positive'
airflow, as the pressure inside the unit is higher than outside.

A balanced or neutral airflow is the most efficient, although a slightly positive airflow results in less dust build up.


[edit] Heat pipes

A heat sink (aluminium) incorporating a heat pipe (copper)A heat pipe is a heat transfer mechanism that can transport large quantities of heat with a
very small difference in temperature between the hot and cold interfaces. A typical heat pipe consists of sealed hollow tube made of a
thermoconductive metal such as copper or aluminium. The pipe contains a relatively small quantity of a "working fluid" or coolant (such as water,
ethanol or mercury) with the remainder of the pipe being filled with the vapour phase of the working fluid, all other gases being excluded. The
advantage of heat pipes is their great efficiency in transferring heat. They are actually more "conductive" than a copper bar of equivalent cross-
section.


[edit] Peltier cooling plates
Peltier cooling plates uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the junction of two different types of materials. This effect is commonly
used for cooling electronic components and small instruments.

There are no moving parts and such a device is maintenance free. Due to the relatively low efficiency, thermoelectric cooling is generally only used in
environments where the solid state nature outweighs the poor efficiency. Thermoelectric junctions are generally only around 10% as efficient as the
ideal refrigerator (Carnot cycle), compared with 40% achieved by conventional compression cycle systems.


[edit] Synthetic Jet Air Cooling
A Synthetic Jet is produced by a continual flow of vortices that are formed by alternating brief ejection and suction of air across an opening such that
the net mass flux is zero. A unique feature of these jets is that they are formed entirely from the working fluid of the flow system in which they are
deployed can produce a net momentum to the flow of a system without net mass injection to the system.

Synthetic jet air movers have no moving parts and are thus maintenance free. Due to the high heat transfer coefficients, high reliability but lower
overall flow rates, Synthetic jet air movers are usually used at the chip level and not at the system level for cooling. However depending on the size
and complexity of the systems they can be used for both at times.


Laptop cooling
A device called manny names such as a labptop or notebook docking station, cooling pad, used to cool down a mobile, portable computer called a
laptop or Notebook PC.

In laptop computing
Laptops are typically made to rest on a solid surface. Unfortunately a flat surface is the least desirable angle to dissipate heat, lower temperatures
are achieved by a chimney effect when a laptop is set at an angle from horizontal. It is important to note that laptops are neither designed for nor
should they be used on surfaces or in spaces which impede the free flow of air (such as carpet or bed linens), as heat damage and/or thermal
shutdown/slow-down may occur.

Laptop stands are accessories which, besides raising the laptops screen to another height, are also meant to reduce airflow restrictions.

Laptop Cooler
A laptop/notebook cooler,cooler pad or chill mat is an accessory for laptop computers that helps reduce their operating temperature. Normally used
when the laptop's fan device is unable to sufficiently cool the laptop, a cooling pad may house its own fans (usually 2 or 3) and rests beneath the
laptop. Though many cooler pads support the use of a power adapter, they typically run on power through one of the laptop's USB ports. Many cooler
pads therefore compensate with a built-in USB hub. Other advanced features include card readers for various forms of media such as keydrives,
Memory Sticks and 2.5" Laptop hard drives.

Some of these "powered" coolers are designed to draw heat from the underside of the computer; others work in the opposite way by blowing cool air
towards the machine. The fan speed can be adjusted manually on certain models to vary the rate of airflow according to temperature, and it ranges
from 1800 RPM to 2800 RPM. Some laptop coolers allow the user to adjust the fan speed.

Unfortunately adding additional power requirements to a laptop that is overheating is self-defeating, as additional heat is generated by the internal
power supply due to the additional load, unless the fans are supplied with power from an external source which does not add to the current load.

Studies conducted by California Polytechnic University show that heat build-up in notebooks are reduced by 15 to 20 percent, when a laptop is
situated at an angle compared to a laptop in a horizontal position. Free air cooling which is a passive method and requires no additional power has
been proven as an effective method of laptop cooling. Many coolers that utilise this passive method are also available.


Mosfet Cooling - Mosfet Cooler
This is a verry specific specialized heatsink with or with out a fan used to cool down a particular chipset belonging to the computer motherboard
usualy used for the purpose of stability or Overclocking.


Overclocking
Overclocking is the process of forcing a computer component to run at a higher clock rate than it was designed for or was designated by the
manufacturer, usually practiced by personal computer enthusiasts in order to increase the performance of their computers. Some of them purchase
low-end computer components which they then overclock to higher speeds, or overclock high-end components to attain levels of performance
beyond their factory defaults. Others overclock outdated components to keep pace with new system requirements, rather than purchasing new
hardware products as expected by the computer industry.[1]

Users who overclock their components mainly focus their efforts on processors, video cards, motherboard chipsets, and Random Access Memory
(RAM). It is done through manipulating the CPU multiplier and the motherboard's front side bus (FSB) speed until a maximum stable operating
frequency is reached. While the idea is simple, variation in the electrical and physical characteristics of computing systems complicates the
process. CPU multipliers, bus dividers, voltages, thermal loads, cooling techniques and several other factors can affect it.


Passive Heatsink cooling
This involves attaching a block of machined metal to the part that needs cooling. An adhesive may be used, or more commonly for a personal
computer CPU, a clamp is used to affix the heat sink tight over the chip, with a thermally conductive pad or gel spread in-between. This block usually
has fins and ridges to increase its surface area. The heat conductivity of metal is much better than that of air, and its ability to radiate heat is better
than that of the component part it is protecting (usually an integrated circuit or CPU). Until recently, fan cooled aluminium heat sinks were the norm
for desktop computers. Today many heat sinks feature copper base-plates or are entirely made of copper, and mount fans of considerable size and
power.

Heat sinks tend to get less effective with time due to the build up of dust between their metal fins, which reduces the efficiency with which the heat
sink transfers heat to the ambient air. Dust build up is commonly countered with canned air, which are used to blow away the dust along with any
other unwanted excess material.

Passive heat sinks are commonly found on older CPUs, parts that do not get very hot (such as the chipset), and low-power computers.

Phase-change cooling
A more extreme way to cool the processor. A phase-change cooler is a unit which usually sits underneath the PC, with a tube
leading to the processor. Inside the unit is a compressor, the same type that cools a freezer. The compressor compresses a gas
which is cooled (usually with fans and air) condensing it to a liquid. Then, the liquid is pumped up to the processor, which heats it,
causing the liquid to evaporate, thereby absorbing the heat from the processor. This evaporation can produce temperatures
reaching around −30 degrees Celsius. The gas flows down to the compressor and the cycle begins over again. This way, the
processor can be cooled to temperatures ranging from −15 to −100 degrees Celsius, depending on the load, type and speed of
the processor and the refrigeration system (see refrigeration).

A simpler approach, and somewhat similar to a heat pipe, is to boil a fluid in a vessel (evaporator) attached to the hot CPU die.
This vapor is condensed in the tubes of an air cooled heat-exchanger. The condensed vapor drains by gravity back to the boiling
vessel. This is known as a thermosiphon. A key limitation is that the condenser must be positioned above the boiling vessel. This
system is totally passive and requires no pumps or compressors.

This method is usually not practical and can cause permanent damage to system componets. Phase change cycle is a method of
cooling that brings your temps below ambient temapture thus causing condensation and rust to computer components until failure.


Quiet PC - Acoustic PC
A quiet PC is a personal computer that makes little noise. Common uses for quiet PCs include video editing, sound mixing, and as home theater
PCs. A typical quiet PC uses quiet fans and hard drives and energy-efficient parts. The term "Quiet PC" is used subjectively and there is currently no
standard definition for what constitutes a "Quiet PC". However, a general definition accepted by most is that the sound emitted by such PCs should
not exceed 30dB when recorded 1 m away from the computer.

[edit] Acoustic By Defenition:
Acoustics is the branch of physics concerned with the study of sound (mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). A scientist who works in the
field of acoustics is an acoustician. The application of acoustics in technology is called acoustical engineering. There is often much overlap and
interaction between the interests of acousticians and acoustical engineers.

The word acoustic is derived from the ancient Greek word ακουστός, meaning able to be heard. (Woodhouse, 1910, 392)

...[A]coustics is characterized by its reliance on combinations of physical principles drawn from other sources; and that the primary task of modern
physical acoustics is to effect a fusion of the principles normally adhering to other sciences into a coherent basis for understanding, measuring,
controlling, and using the whole gamut of vibrational phenomena in any material.

Origins in Acoustics. F.V. Hunt. Yale University Press, 1978

Acoustics is the science concerned with the production, control, transmission, reception, and effects of sound. Its origins began with the study of
mechanical vibrations and the radiation of these vibrations through mechanical waves, and still continues today. Research was done to look into the
many aspects of the fundamental physical processes involved in waves and sound and into possible applications of these processes in modern
life. The study of sound waves also lead to physical principles that can be applied to the study of all waves.

The study of acoustics has been fundamental to many developments in the arts. Some of these, especially in the area of musical scales and
instruments, were only explained theoretically by scientists after long years of long experimentation by artists. For example, much of what is now
known about architectural acoustics was actually learned by trial and error over centuries of experience and was only recently formalized into a
science.

Other applications of acoustic technology are in the study of geologic, atmospheric, and underwater phenomena. Psychoacoustics, the study of the
physical effects of sound on biological systems, has been of interest since Pythagoras first heard the sounds of vibrating strings and of hammers
hitting anvils in the 6th century BC, but the application of modern ultrasonic technology has only recently provided some of the most exciting
developments in medicine. The ear itself is another biological instrument dedicated to receiving certain wave vibrations and interpreting them as
sound. Recent studies by Daniel Statnekov and others, study sound and its effect on the human brain. Harmonic frequencies in the form of binaural
beats can effect the brainwave patterns of a person who plays an ancient Peruvian Whistling Pot to create a "trance state". Here are some public
technical papers on this subject

[edit] PC- By Defenition:
A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals. A personal computer may
be a home computer, or may be found in an office, often connected to a local area network. The distinguishing characteristic is that the computer is
used only (or mostly) by one person at a time, in a very interactive fashion, with no significant delay between an operator action and response by the
computer. This is opposite to the batch processing or time-sharing models which allowed large expensive systems to be used by many people,
usually at the same time.

The capabilities of a personal computer have changed greatly since the introduction of electronic computers. By the early 1970's, people in
academic or research institutions had the opportunity for single-person use of a computer system in interactive mode for extended durations,
although these systems would still have been too expensive to be owned by a single individual. The introduction of the microprocessor, a single
chip with all the circuitry that formerly occupied large cabinets, lead to the proliferation of personal computers after about 1975. Early
microcomputers, sold often in kit form and in limited volumes and were of interest mostly to hobbyists and technicians. By the late 1970's, mass-
market pre-assembled computers allowed a wider range of people to use computers, focussing more on software applications and less on
development of the processor hardware. Throughout the 1970's and 1980's, home computers were developed for household use, offering some
personal productivity, programming and games, while somewhat larger and more expensive systems (although still low-cost compared with
minicomputers and mainframes) were aimed for office and small business use.

Eventually the market segments lost any technical distinction; business computers acquired color graphics capacity and sound, and home
computers and game systems used the same processors and operating systems as office-bound computers. Even local area networking, originally
a way to allow business computers to share expensive mass storage and peripherals, became a standard feature of a home computer.

Today a personal computer may be a desktop computer, a laptop computer, a tablet computer or a PDA. The most common operating systems are
Linux, Mac OS, and Microsoft Windows while the most common microprocessors are the x86 and PowerPC CPU's. Software applications for
personal computers include word processing, spreadsheets, games, and a myriad of personal productivity and special-purpose software. Modern
personal computers often have high-speed or dial-up connections to the Internet, allowing access to the World Wide Web and a wide range of other
resources. While early personal computer owners usually had to write their own programs to do anything useful with the machines, today's users
have access to a wide range of commercial and free software which is easily installed.

[edit] Acoustic PC :
What is an Acoustic PC? A new modern word used by Acoustic PC Inc. The term Acoustic PC is used to descibe a perfectly balanced personal
computer, Acoustically Lined and sound optimsed as well aa balanced cooling wise, for diffrent type of quiet or silent computing applications.. For
instance a Silent Acoustic PC for recording and multimedia applications. Quiet Acoustic PC, for Home, libaries, Goverment, Educational facilities.
Quiet Performance Acoustic PC for Busness, Gamers, Moderate Overclocking and more.


Ram Cooling - Ram Coolers
These are specific heatsinks with or with a fan used to cool down the computer ram memory wehere all the information is being processed.
Sometimes this can also be called a Ram Heatspreader in computer cooling language \ terminology.


Thermal Compound - Thermal Paste - Thermal Grease
Thermal grease (also called thermal compound, heat paste, thermal paste, or heat sink compound) is a substance that increases thermal
conductivity between the surfaces of two or more objects. In electronics, it is often used to aid a component's thermal dissipation via a heat sink.


VGA Cooling - VGA Cooler
This is a term used for a heatsink with or with out a fan used to cool down a computers graphic accelerator or more commonly called a video card
used for visual effects on a computer monitor.

Watercooling
Also refered as Liquid Cooling. While originally limited to mainframe computers, computer watercooling has become a practice largely associated
with overclocking in the form of either manufactured "kits" or in the form of DIY setups assembled from individually gathered parts. Lately
watercooling has seen increasing use in pre-assembled desktop computers.


Words used to describe an Individual(s) highly involved with computers...

Computer Geek(s)
The definition of geek? The definition of geek has changed considerably over time, and there is no longer any consistent modern definite meaning.
The social and rather derogatory connotations of the word make it particularly difficult to define. A definition common among self-identified geeks is:
"one who is primarily motivated by passion," indicating somebody whose reasoning and decision making is always first and foremost based on
his/her passions rather than things like financial reward or social acceptance. Geeks do not see the typical "geeky" interests as merely interesting,
but as objects of passionate devotion. The idea that the pursuit of personal passions should be the fundamental driving force to all decisions could
be considered the most basic shared tenet among geeks of all varieties. Geeks consider such pursuits to be their own defining characteristic.
[citation needed]

A person who is interested in technology, especially computing and new media. Comparable with the classic definition of hacker.
A person who relates academic subjects to the real world outside of academic studies — for example, using multi-variable calculus to determine
how they should correctly optimize the dimensions of a pan to bake a cake. A person who has chosen concentration rather than conformity; one who
pursues skill (especially technical skill) and imagination, not mainstream social acceptance. Geeks usually have a strong case of neophilia (a love
of novelty and new things). Most geeks are adept with computers and treat "hacker" as a term of respect, but not all are hackers themselves — and
some who actually are hackers normally call themselves geeks anyway, because they regard "hacker" as a label that should be bestowed by others
rather than self-assumed. A person with a devotion to something in a way that places him or her outside the mainstream. This could be due to the
intensity, depth, or subject of their interest. This definition is very broad, and allows for mathematics geeks, engineering geeks, sci-fi geeks,
computer geeks, various science geeks, movie and film geeks (cinephile), comics geeks, theatre geeks, history geeks, gamer geeks, music geeks,
art geeks, SCA geeks, literature geeks. G.E.E.K., as an acronym, reputedly came from the United States Military; it stands for General Electrical
Engineering Knowledge. It is likely a backronym. A derogatory term for one with low social skills, regardless of intelligence. A performer at a carnival
who swallows various live animals and bugs. A person who rejects society, yet is involved in it — unlike and in contrast to a hermit. (This is generally
used to also mean someone with high intelligence.) Natasha Chen Christensen quotes Julie Smith: "a bright young man turned inward, poorly
socialized, who felt so little kinship with his own planet that he routinely traveled to the ones invented by his favorite authors, who thought of that
secret, dreamy place his computer took him to as cyberspace -- somewhere exciting, a place more real than his own life, a land he could conquer,
not a drab teenager's room in his parents' house."[2] Words such as nerd and dork are similar to the word "geek", but carry different connotations. It
could be said that the particular interests of nerds are of practical nature (like math, physics, astronomy), while those of geeks are often considered
trivial but entertaining.

Geeks are usually verry smart pepole with high IQ's

PC Enthusiast
A person who is involved with computers as a hobby or fun. PC Enthusiast also usually are members of a computer club or fourm and discuss
computer related issues such as trouble shooting with software or computer system cooling in their spare time.  
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